We hope you’re enjoying Go 1.16!
This release has a lot of new features, especially for modules.
The release notes describe these changes briefly, but let’s explore a few of them in depth.
Modules on by default
go command now builds packages in module-aware mode by default, even when no
go.mod is present.
This is a big step toward using modules in all projects.
It’s still possible to build packages in GOPATH mode by setting the
GO111MODULE environment variable to
You can also set
auto to enable module-aware mode only when a go.mod file is present in the current directory or any parent directory.
This was previously the default.
Note that you can set
GO111MODULE and other variables permanently with
go env -w:
go env -w GO111MODULE=auto
We plan to drop support for GOPATH mode in Go 1.17.
In other words, Go 1.17 will ignore
If you have projects that do not build in module-aware mode, now is the time to migrate.
If there is a problem preventing you from migrating, please consider filing an issue or an experience report.
No automatic changes to go.mod and go.sum
Previously, when the
go command found a problem with
go.sum like a missing
require directive or a missing sum, it would attempt to fix the problem automatically.
We received a lot of feedback that this behavior was surprising, especially for commands like
go list that don’t normally have side effects.
The automatic fixes weren’t always desirable: if an imported package wasn’t provided by any required module, the
go command would add a new dependency, possibly triggering upgrades of common dependencies.
Even a misspelled import path would result in a (failed) network lookup.
In Go 1.16, module-aware commands report an error after discovering a problem in
go.sum instead of attempting to fix the problem automatically.
In most cases, the error message recommends a command to fix the problem.
$ go build example.go:3:8: no required module provides package golang.org/x/net/html; to add it: go get golang.org/x/net/html $ go get golang.org/x/net/html $ go build
As before, the
go command may use the
vendor directory if it’s present (see Vendoring for details).
go get and
go mod tidy still modify
go.sum, since their main purpose is to manage dependencies.
Installing an executable at a specific version
go install command can now install an executable at a specific version by specifying an
go install email@example.com
When using this syntax,
go install installs the command from that exact module version, ignoring any
go.mod files in the current directory and parent directories.
go install continues to operate as it always has, building the program using the version requirements and replacements listed in the current module’s
We used to recommend
go get -u program to install an executable, but this use caused too much confusion with the meaning of
go get for adding or changing module version requirements in
And to avoid accidentally modifying
go.mod, people started suggesting more complex commands like:
cd $HOME; GO111MODULE=on go get program@latest
Now we can all use
go install program@latest instead.
go install for details.
In order to eliminate ambiguity about which versions are used, there are several restrictions on what directives may be present in the program’s
go.mod file when using this install syntax.
exclude directives are not allowed, at least for now.
In the long term, once the new
go install program@version is working well for enough use cases, we plan to make
go get stop installing command binaries.
See issue 43684 for details.
Have you ever accidentally published a module version before it was ready?
Or have you discovered a problem right after a version was published that needed to be fixed quickly?
Mistakes in published versions are difficult to correct.
To keep module builds deterministic, a version cannot be modified after it is published.
Even if you delete or change a version tag,
proxy.golang.org and other proxies probably already have the original cached.
Module authors can now retract module versions using the
retract directive in
A retracted version still exists and can be downloaded (so builds that depend on it won’t break), but the
go command won’t select it automatically when resolving versions like
go get and
go list -m -u will print warnings about existing uses.
For example, suppose the author of a popular library
v1.0.5, then discovers a new security issue.
They can add a directive to their
go.mod file like the one below:
// Remote-triggered crash in package foo. See CVE-2021-01234. retract v1.0.5
Next, the author can tag and push version
v1.0.6, the new highest version.
After this, users that already depend on
v1.0.5 will be notified of the retraction when they check for updates or when they upgrade a dependent package.
The notification message may include text from the comment above the
$ go list -m -u all example.com/lib v1.0.0 (retracted) $ go get . go: warning: firstname.lastname@example.org: retracted by module author: Remote-triggered crash in package foo. See CVE-2021-01234. go: to switch to the latest unretracted version, run: go get example.com/lib@latest
Controlling version control tools with GOVCS
go command can download module source code from a mirror like proxy.golang.org or directly from a version control repository using
Direct version control access is important, especially for private modules that aren’t available on proxies, but it’s also potentially a security problem: a bug in a version control tool may be exploited by a malicious server to run unintended code.
Go 1.16 introduces a new configuration variable,
GOVCS, which lets the user specify which modules are allowed to use specific version control tools.
GOVCS accepts a comma-separated list of
pattern is a
path.Match pattern matching one or more leading elements of a module path.
The special patterns
private match public and private modules (
private is defined as modules matched by patterns in
public is everything else).
vcslist is a pipe-separated list of allowed version control commands or the keyword
With this setting, modules with paths on
github.com can be downloaded using
git; paths on
evil.com cannot be downloaded using any version control command, and all other paths (
* matches everything) can be downloaded using
GOVCS is not set, or if a module does not match any pattern, the
go command uses this default:
hg are allowed for public modules, and all tools are allowed for private modules.
The rationale behind allowing only Git and Mercurial is that these two systems have had the most attention to issues of being run as clients of untrusted servers.
In contrast, Bazaar, Fossil, and Subversion have primarily been used in trusted, authenticated environments and are not as well scrutinized as attack surfaces.
That is, the default setting is:
See the Controlling version control tools with
GOVCS for more details.
We hope you find these features useful. We’re already hard at work on the next set of module features for Go 1.17, particularly lazy module loading, which should make the module loading process faster and more stable.
As always, if you run into new bugs, please let us know on the issue tracker. Happy coding!